Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation


The prospector is the most dynamic of the organizational forms. This type of organization operates in an environment characterized by rapid and unpredictable changes.

The prospector typically operates within a broad productmarket domain that undergoes periodic redefinition. The organization values being "first in" in new product and market areas even if not all these efforts prove to be highly profitable.

The organization responds rapidly to early signals concerning areas of opportunity, and the these responses often lead to a new round of competitive actions. However, this type of organization may not maintain market strength in all of the areas it enters.


The Defender is a less dynamic form of organization operating in an environment that is more stable and predictable than of the prospector.

The Defender attempts to locate and maintain a secure niche in a relatively stable product or service area. The [defender] tends to offer a more limited range of products and services than its competitors, and it tries to protect its domain by offering higher quality, superior service, lower prices, and so forth. Often this type of organization is not at the forefront of developments in the industry it tends to ignore industry changes that have no direct influence on current areas of operation and concentrates instead on doing the best job possible in a limited area.