Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation

The Manager And Leadership

It is important to distinguish between leadership and management , two concepts that are frequently confused. Leadership is not a synonym for management: it is a higher order of capability. For example, Warenn Bennis noted that:

To survive in the twentyfirst century, we are going to need a new generation of leaders leaders, not managers. The distinction is an important one. Leaders conquer the context the volatile, turbulent, ambiguous surroundings that sometimes seem to conspire against us and will surely suffocate us if we let them while managers surrender to it.
Warren G. Bennis, "Managing The Dream: Leadership in the 21st Century,"

The Dimension Of Leadership

Studies of leadership have focused on three variables that determine leadership effectiveness. These variables are:

These three variables are the central concerns in the study leadership.