The Managerial Grid
A very popular and well known application of the behavior approach to leadership has been developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Srygley Mouton. They propose a Managerial Grid based on the styles of concern of people and concern for production, which essentially represent the Ohio State dimensions of consideration and initiating structure or the Michigan dimensions of employee oriented and production oriented.
As Figure 43 shows, the grid has nine possible positions along each axis, creating eightyone different positions in which the leader's style may fall. Five leadership styles (country club management, team management, organization man management, impoverished management, and authority management ) serve as benchmarks within the managerial grid.
With a team management style (9,9), the leader is able to elicit highquality performances from a group of highly committed followers who share a common purpose.
In contrast, authoritycompliance managers (9,1) try to maximize productivity through power and authority. Country club managers (1,9) occurs when primary emphasis is given to people rather to work outputs. Organization Man management (5,5) reflects a moderate amount of concern for both people and production. Impoverished managers (1,1) means the absence of a management philosophy; managers exert little effort toward interpersonal relationships or work accomplishment.
Blake and Mouton have shown that experienced managers tend to choose the 9,9 style as most effective in all situations.
However, the grid should be used cautiously, because there is a lack of research on the connection of these leadership styles to effectiveness.
Contingency leadership theorists direct their research toward discovering the variables that permit certain leadership characteristics and behaviours to be effective in a give situation.