One of the more recent addition to the contingency approach is the VroomYettonJago model , first proposed by Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton in 1973 and recently expanded by Vroom and Arthur Jago.
This model emphasizes the fact that leaders achieve success through effective decision making. The Vroom Yetton Jago model describes effective decision as of high quality, well accepted by followers, and made in a timely fashion. These researches assume that the leader can choose a leadership style along a continuum ranging from highly autocratic to high participate, as shown in Table 44.
To select an appropriate leadership style, managers answer seven diagnostic questions. This procedure yields a decision tree that indicates the most effective level of participation, as shown in Figure 46.
Several of the questions now allow more than a simple yes or no answer. To compensate for this difficulty, Vroom and Jago have developed computer software to help managers assess a particular situation accurately and quickly and then make an appropriate decision regarding employee participation.
You solve the problem or make the decision yourself using the information available to you at the present time.
- You obtain any necessary information from subordinates, then decide on a solution to the problem yourself. You may or may not tell subordinates the purpose of your questions or give information about the problem or decision you are working on. The input provided by them is clearly in response to your request for specific information. They do not play a role in the definition of the problem or in generating or evaluating alternative solutions.
- You share the problem with the relevant subordinates individually, getting their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. Then you make the decision. This decision may or not reflect your subordinates influence.
- You share the problem with your subordinates in a group meeting. In this meeting, you obtain their ideas and suggestions. Then, you make the decision, which may or may not reflect your subordinates influence.
- You share the problem with your subordinates as a group. Together you generate and evaluate alternatives and attempt to reach agreement (consensus) on a solution. Your role is much like that of chairperson, coordinating the discussion, keeping it focused on the problem, and making sure that critical issues are discussed. You can provide the group with information or ideas that you have, but you do not try to "press" them to adopt "your" solution and are willing to accept and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group.