Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation


Three basic approaches to leadership are: traits, behavior, and contingency.

Trait approach
The trait approach has resulted in attempts to predict leadership effectiveness from physical, sociological, and psychological traits. The search for traits has led to studies involving effectiveness and such factors as height, weight, intelligence, and personality. Although this is a limited theory because traits alone cannot explain effectiveness, its is equally clear that traits are not irrelevant to effective leadership.
Bahavior approach
The bahavior approach emphasizes leaders' actions instead of their personal traits. Investigations into leadership behavior have revealed that leaders exhibit two broad categories of behavior: consideration (relationship and people focused) and initiating structure (task and production focused). Universalbehavior approach ignores the influence of the particular situation in which the leader works.
Contingency approach
The contingency approach tried to identify appropriate leadership style on the basis of the situation. Many theories have attempted to characterize and plot this interface of situational elements and appropriate leadership behaviour.
Fiedler's contingency theory
stated that leadership effectiveness depended on a match between the leader's style and the favourableness of th situation determined by task structure, leadermember relations, and leader position power.
The pathgoal theory
suggests that directive, supportive, or achievementoriented leader behavior may be appropriate, depending on the personal characteristics of subordinate and on characteristics of the environment.
The VroomYettonJago model
is essentially a model for deciding on how much should participate in the decisionmaking process.

Last part of the chapter concluded by considering some recent ideas that do not have their roots in traditional leadership: the attribution theory of leadership and the charisma leadership theory.