Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation

Driving Forces

The driving forces, which may be external or internal in origin, are likely to have economic aspects (e.g., a need to increase sales, to improve profitability, to generate new form of competitive advantages). Any resistance will constitute a restraining forces, seeking to abandon or modify the change proposals. Lewin suggests that the driving forces are based more on logic and the restraining forces an emotion. Managers should be aware of both the driving forces and the real restraining forces.

To understood these forces, it is helpful to focus on three interconnected aspects of organizations: the forces, both external and internal, that set events in motion; the major kinds of change that correspond to each of the external and internal change pressures; and the principal tasks involved in managing the change process.

The Three Kinds Of Movement

The motion of the organization as a whole as it relates to motion in its environment change that is macroevolutionary, historical and typically related to cluster or whole industries.

The motion of the parts of the organization in relation to one another as the organization grows, ages, and progresses through its life cycle change that is microevolutionary, developmental, and typically related to its size or shape, resulting in coordination issues.

The jockeying for power and struggle for control among individuals and groups with a stake in the organization to make decisions or enjoy benefits as an expression of their own interests change that focuses on political dimensions and involves revolutionary activity.