Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation

Roles And Tasks In The Change Process

Managing change is one of the most troubling and challenging tasks facing organizations today.

Organizational change is typically modeled as a threepart process that takes the flawed organization.

Figure 52 illustrates these three phases. Whether the three phases are called Unfreezing, Changing, and Refreezing (Lewin, 1974), a ThreeAct Drama (Tichy and Devanna,1986), or a transition from current state to future state (Beckhard and Harris, 1987), the same major themes emerge:

The company must be awakened to a new reality and must disengage from the past, recognizing that the old way of doing things is no longer acceptable.
The organization creates and embraces a new vision of the future, uniting behind the steps necessary to achieve that vision.
As new attitudes, practices, and policies are put in place to change the corporation, these must be "refrozen" (as Levin put it) or solidified.

Change is successful only the entire organization participates in the effort. Three basic groups must be coordinated if change is to be effectively implemented: change strategists, change "implementors," and change recipients. Each group carries its own assumptions, agendas, and reactions (see Figure 53).