Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation

Change Implementors

Change implementors managing the daytoday process of change. They develop and enact the steps necessary to enact the vision; they manage the coordination among parts and the relationship among people that give the organization its internal shape and culture, specializing in the internal development of the organization.

Most organizational development literature has been directed at these change implementors. This literature tends to address stepbystep practical advice (e.g., Tichy, 1983; Lippitt, Langseth, and Mossop, 1985; Kirkpatrick, 1986; Beckard and Harris, 1987; Woodward and Buchholz, 1987; Mohrman, Mohrman, and Ledford, Cummings, and Lawler, 1989).

The focus is on major issues facing implementors: intervention tactics for overcoming resistance; communication tools; how to develop transition structures; training and development; reward systems and the like.

Change Recipients

Change recipients represent the largest group of people that must adopt, and adopt to, change. Their response and reaction to change can fundamentally reshape that change (see: Guest, Hersey, and Blanchard, 1977; Kanter, 1983, 1985; Neumann, 1989; Spector, 1989).

For example, the concept of "organizational readiness to change" that is frequently assessed in the early phases of a change effort is an indication of how important the "users" actually are.

Recipients appear in the organization change literature primarily as sources of resistance. However, what is vital to a successful change effort is understanding how recipients perceive the change and how they experience it.